The most important part of any automobile is the part that contacts the road. The wheels on a car, truck, bus, or other vehicle are responsible for ensuring that you keep a stable grip on the road, and that your ride is smooth and safe. When driving, they are usually the last thing you might be thinking about, but they are an essential part of the vehicle and one that you should have some knowledge of if you want to keep driving safely. So what are the different types of wheels that a vehicle can have installed and what are their characteristics?
Different Types of Wheels
The different types of wheels available include conventional steel wheels, modern alloy wheels, forged and cast wheels and chrome coated wheels.
Conventional Steel Wheels
The most common type of wheel that you will find is the standard steel rim wheel. Wheel enthusiasts often call these ‘steelies’ for short. Steel wheels have been around since the early cars were first made and are still in common use today, although the quality and design have improved dramatically over the years. Modern steel wheels are usually made from a pressed steel sheet that is forged into the shape required for the rim. They are cheap to manufacture and purchase, but can cost more over the lifetime of a vehicle as they are also relatively heavy and will use more fuel as a result.
Modern Alloy Wheels
To reduce weight and improve strength, many modern wheels are made from alloys of lightweight materials. Most of these are alloyed with aluminum due to its high strength-to-weight ratio with materials such as magnesium, nickel, or titanium being added to increase strength. In addition to being lighter and using less fuel, most of these alloy wheel rims also have the advantage of being better heat conductors which lets them dissipate the heat from braking far more efficiently than steel. This can be an important factor in situations where extended braking occurs as the accumulated heat can damage the vehicle brakes and potentially cause them to lock up or stop working. Alloy wheels are more expensive than steel rims, but will usually pay for themselves in reduced fuel costs over the life of the wheel due to their lower weight.
Forged versus Cast Wheels
There are two main ways that wheel rims are made. They can be forged from pieces of hot metal that are pressed into shape and often heat-welded together from multiple pieces. They can also be cast from molten metal that is forced into a mold to form the shape of the rim. Steel rims are usually made using the former method and alloy rims with the latter, though this is not always the case. Cast wheel rims are easier to make and tend to be cheaper as a result. Forged rims are often stronger relative to the material they are made of, as the process of casting the rim can introduce flaws. Forged rims are made from metal pieces that can be manufactured in ways that reduce the likelihood of flaws in the metal and the process of hot-pressing them into shape can give a better internal structure to the metal compared to the turbulent flow of cast metal.
Chrome Coated Wheels
Most cheaper wheels are coated with paint to stop corrosion or are left with their natural surface if the rim material is corrosion resistant. In more expensive wheels, chromium is often used to add a layer of surface protection to the wheel. Chrome wheels also have the advantage of looking shiny and fashionable, so they are often favored where the look of the vehicle is an important factor.
The vehicle wheels and wheel rims are an important part of a car, and the choice of rim is often a large factor in how safe and smooth the ride is. There are many different types of wheels and knowing which type is best for your car can be useful information. Choose the rim type that works best for your lifestyle and driving choices, but make sure that your car wheels are safe and economical to drive on.